Nationwide DNA Testing
Paternity Testing and Family Studies
DNA tests are highly accurate, usually excluding more than 99.99% of non-parents. DNA testing can also provide a high probability of paternity.
NationsCheck and LabCorp’s testing protocols are designed to readily resolve routine questions of disputed paternity as well as less common cases, such as:
* Absent mother
* Family studies
* Deceased parties
* Multiple alleged fathers who are related
* Twin zygosity
* Sibling testing
* Grandparent testing
* Family study/reconstruction (to determine paternity when a parent’s DNA is unavailable)
* Y chromosome testing
NationsCheck along with Labcorp performs testing on several different sample types. The most commonly used sample is the buccal swab. This type of sample is collected by swabbing the inner facial cheek (buccal cavity) with a sterile cotton swab. Blood samples also can be used for paternity or identity testing.
NationsCheck along with LabCorp’s DNA testing services can assist in confirming genetic relatedness for the enrollment as a member of a federally recognized American Indian tribe. A common requirement for tribal membership is lineal descendancy (genealogical documentation) to a member of a tribe’s base roll or someone descended from a member on the base roll. (A base roll is the original list of members as designated in a tribal constitution.) Submitting DNA samples for analysis can assist in establishing such documentation.
When evaluating DNA (or any other genetic test), keep in mind that each person has two sets of genetic markers, one from his or her father and one from his or her mother. In evaluating a paternity case, one first looks at what the mother and child have in common. The genetic marker that is left over in the child must come from the biological father. If the alleged father has that left over genetic marker, he is not excluded from paternity. If he does not have the genetic marker, he is excluded from paternity in that system.
In example A, the mother has genetic markers #3 and #4. These are the genetic markers the mother inherited from her parents. Looking at the child, the mother and child share the #3 genetic marker. The #3 is what the child inherited from the mother. The #6 genetic marker in the child must come from the biological father, as the mother does not have #6 genetic marker. Note that the alleged father has the #6 genetic marker that is needed from the biological father. Therefore, the alleged father cannot be excluded from paternity.
Suppose another alleged father is submitted in the same case, and the results in example B are obtained. We have already evaluated the mother and child and know that the biological father must contribute the #6 genetic marker. The results for alleged father #2 are not consistent with paternity, as he does not have the #6 genetic marker. (Note: normally exclusions in at least 2 genetic systems are obtained before excluding a man as the father.)
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