Chapter 7 Bankruptcy: Officially called "Liquidation", it's an orderly, court-supervised procedure by which a trustee collects your assets and reduces them to cash, and then distributes the proceeds to creditors, subject to your right to retain certain exempt property and the rights of secured creditors

Chapter 9 Bankruptcy: Officially called "Adjustment of Debts of a Municipality", it provides for reorganization, much like chapter 11.

Chapter 11 Bankruptcy: Officially called "Reorganization", it is ordinarily used by commercial enterprises that desire to continue operating a business and repay creditors concurrently through a court-approved plan of reorganization.

Chapter 12 Bankruptcy: Officially Called "Adjustment of Debts of a Family Farmer with Regular Annual Income".

Chapter 13 Bankruptcy: Officially called "Adjustment of Debts of an Individual With Regular Income", it is designed for an individual debtor who has a regular source of income.

Drug Testing

Substance Abuse Professional (SAP)
A person who evaluates employees who have violated a DOT drug and alcohol regulation and makes recommendations concerning education, treatment, follow-up testing, and aftercare.

Shy Bladder
Occasionally, a donor is unable to provide a specimen upon arrival at the collection site because he or she either urinated recently or has a "shy bladder." Generally, the term "shy bladder" refers to an individual who is unable to provide a sufficient specimen either upon demand or when someone is nearby during the attempted urination.

Split specimen
In drug testing, a part of the urine specimen that is sent to a first laboratory and retained unopened, and which is transported to a second laboratory in the event that the employee requests that it be tested following a verified positive test of the primary specimen or a verified adulterated or substituted test result.

Substituted specimen
A specimen with creatinine and specific gravity values that are so diminished that they are not consistent with human urine.

Screening Test Technician (STT)
A person who instructs and assists employees in the alcohol testing process and operates an ASD.

Specimen bottle
The bottle that, after being sealed and labeled according to the procedures in this part, is used to hold the urine specimen during transportation to the laboratory.

Substituted specimen
A specimen with creatinine and specific gravity values that are so diminished that they are not consistent with human urine

Primary specimen
In drug testing, the urine specimen bottle that is opened and tested by a first laboratory to determine whether the employee has a drug or drug metabolite in his or her system; and for the purpose of validity testing. The primary specimen is distinguished from the split specimen, defined in this section.

Positive Result
The MRO interviews the donor. If the donor is unable to provide a valid alternative medical explanation, a positive laboratory test result is determined as a "Positive" by the MRO. If the donor provides a valid alternative medical explanation, the MRO reports the test result as "Negative." The MRO completes Step 6 on Copy 2 of the CCF and reports the appropriate result to the employer.

If a laboratory also marks the dilute box, the MRO reports the verified test result (i.e., either "Positive" or "Negative"), marks the dilute box, and informs the employer that the next time the donor is selected for a drug test the employer may require the specimen to be collected under direct observation because the specimen was dilute. *_reference

Medical Review Officer (MRO)
A person who is a licensed physician and who is responsible for receiving and reviewing laboratory results generated by an employer's drug testing program and evaluating medical explanations for certain drug test results.

Negative Result
The MRO makes a "Negative" determination, completes Step 6 on Copy 2 of the CCF, and reports the "Negative" result to the employer. If a laboratory also marked the dilute box, the MRO verifies the test result as "Negative," marks the dilute box, and informs the employer that the next time the donor is selected for a drug test the employer may require the specimen to be collected under direct observation because the specimen was dilute. Note: A comment indicating that the specimen was dilute does not affect the validity of a "Negative" test result. *_reference

Any US. laboratory certified by HHS under the National Laboratory Certification Program as meeting the minimum standards of Subpart C of the HHS Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs; or, in the case of foreign laboratories, a laboratory approved for participation by DOT under this part. (The HHS Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs are available on the internet at: http://www.health.org/workplace/ or from the Division of Workplace Programs, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockwall II Building, Suite 815, Rockville, MD 20857.)

Initial drug test
The test used to differentiate a negative specimen from one that requires further testing for drugs or drug metabolites.

Initial validity test
The first test used to determine if a specimen is adulterated, diluted, or substituted.

Invalid drug test
The result of a drug test for a urine specimen that contains an unidentified adulterant or an unidentified interfering substance, has abnormal physical characteristics, or has an endogenous substance at an abnormal concentration that prevents the laboratory from completing or obtaining a valid drug test result. There can be several reasons for an invalid or unsuitable result.

Evidential Breath Testing Device (EBT)
A device approved by NHTSA for the evidential testing of breath at the .02 and .04 alcohol concentrations, placed on NHTSA's Conforming Products List (CPL) for "Evidential Breath Measurement Devices" and identified on the CPL as conforming with the model specifications available from NHTSA’s Traffic Safety Program.

Designated employer representative (DER)
An employee authorized by the employer to take immediate action(s) to remove employees from safety-sensitive duties, or cause employees to be removed from these covered duties, and to make required decisions in the testing and evaluation processes. The DER also receives test results and other communications for the employer, consistent with the requirements of this part. Service agents cannot act as DERs.

Dilute specimen
A specimen with creatinine and specific gravity values that are lower than expected for human urine.

DOT, The Department, DOT agency
These terms encompass all DOT agencies, including, but not limited to, the United States Coast Guard (USCG), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA), and the Office of the Secretary (OST). These terms include any designee of a DOT agency.

The drugs for which tests are required under this part and DOT agency regulations are marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, phencyclidine (PCP), and opiates.

Chain of custody (COC)
The procedure used to document the handling of the urine specimen from the time the employee gives the specimen to the collector until the specimen is destroyed. This procedure uses the Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control Form (CCF).

Collection container
A container into which the employee urinates to provide the specimen for a drug test.

Collection site
A place selected by the employer where employees present themselves for the purpose of providing a urine specimen for a drug test.

A person who instructs and assists employees at a collection site, who receives and makes an initial inspection of the specimen provided by those employees, and who initiates and completes the CCF.

Confirmation (or confirmatory) drug test
A second analytical procedure performed on a urine specimen to identify and quantify the presence of a specific drug or drug metabolite.

Confirmation (or confirmatory) validity test
A second test performed on a urine specimen to further support a validity test result.

Confirmed drug test.
A confirmation test result received by an MRO from a laboratory.

Consortium/ Third-party administrator (C/TPA)
A service agent that provides or coordinates the provision of a variety of drug and alcohol testing services to employers. C/TPAs typically perform administrative tasks concerning the operation of the employers' drug and alcohol testing programs. This term includes, but is not limited to, groups of employers who join together to administer, as a single entity, the DOT drug and alcohol testing programs of its members. C/TPAs are not "employers" for purposes of this part.

Blind specimen or blind performance test specimen
A specimen submitted to a laboratory for quality control testing purposes, with a fictitious identifier, so that the laboratory cannot distinguish it from an employee specimen.

Breath Alcohol Technician (BAT)
A person who instructs and assists employees in the alcohol testing process and operates an evidential breath testing device.


Taken from The Department of Transportation’s (DOT) 49 CFR Part 40


Adulterated specimen
A specimen that contains a substance that is not expected to be present in human urine, or contains a substance expected to be present but is at a concentration so high that it is not consistent with human urine.

Persons are affiliates of one another if, directly or indirectly, one controls or has the power to control the other, or a third party controls or has the power to control both. Indicators of control include, but are not limited to: interlocking management or ownership; shared interest among family members; shared facilities or equipment; or common use of employees. Following the issuance of a public interest exclusion, an organization having the same or similar management, ownership, or principal employees as the service agent concerning whom a public interest exclusion is in effect is regarded as an affiliate. This definition is used in connection with the public interest exclusion procedures of Subpart R of this part.

Air blank
In evidential breath testing devices (EBTs) using gas chromatography technology, a reading of the device's internal standard. In all other EBTs, a reading of ambient air containing no alcohol.

The intoxicating agent in beverage alcohol, ethyl alcohol or other low molecular weight alcohol’s, including methyl or isopropyl alcohol.

Alcohol concentration
The alcohol in a volume of breath expressed in terms of grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath as indicated by a breath test under this part.

Alcohol confirmation test
A subsequent test using an EBT, following a screening test with a result of 0.02 or greater, that provides quantitative data about the alcohol concentration.

Alcohol screening device (ASD)
A breath or saliva device, other than an EBT, that is approved by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and placed on a conforming products list (CPL) for such devices.

Alcohol screening test
An analytic procedure to determine whether an employee may have a prohibited concentration of alcohol in a breath or saliva specimen.

Alcohol testing site
A place selected by the employer where employees present themselves for the purpose of providing breath or saliva for an alcohol test.

Alcohol use
The drinking or swallowing of any beverage, liquid mixture or preparation (including any medication), containing alcohol.

Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance (ODAPC)
The office in the Office of the Secretary, DOT, that is responsible for coordinating drug and alcohol testing program matters within the Department and providing information concerning the implementation of this part.

Standard Urine Testing
One of the most common drug screening methods, urine testing is an accurate and a reliable way to detect casual drug use that has occurred within the last 72 hours.

Oral Fluid Testing                                                                                                                           A drug testing device using oral fluids for drug detection rather than urine

Hair Testing                                                                                                                                        A drug history can be obtained from the hair of any individual.  Drug use can be detected for many months to even years, depending on the length of the hair sample.  It takes approximately 5 days for drugs to show up in a person's hair. 

ETG Drug Testing

Adulteration Testing

Adulteration testing for urine tests specimen validity testing ensures the integrity of your urine drug test by identifying adulterants that may be added to hide drug use. All "invalid results" are tested twice automatically to ensure accuracy. Specimens suspected of containing certain prescription and non-prescription drugs that may interfere with analysis during the initial enzyme immunoassay screen are automatically tested again using an alternate methodology.

MRO - Medical Review Officer                                                                                  

MRO qualifications require that the MRO is licensed as a medical doctor (MD) or doctor of osteopathic medicine (DO) in any one state. Board Certified Toxicologists, Pathologists, Neurologists, Psychiatrists and other relevant specialists, active in academics and clinical practice. Must have an in-depth knowledge of substances of abuse and how the body reacts. Will be able to monitoring and review of test reports with efficient management of the complex procedures required in the case of positive results. The MRO is required to attend a training course every three (3) years.

MRO's do not work for NationsCheck nor do they have a financial relationship with the company they are an independent authority. MRO's assist in:


      Preparation of reports for government agencies of record

      Expert testimony when required

      SAP [Substance Abuse Professional] referral.                                          

ng - nanograms

mL - milliliter

EIA - enzyme immunoassay

GC/MS - gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

SAMHSA  Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

DOT US Department of Transportation

Federal Fair Credit Reporting Act, 15 USC §1681,                  



FERPA Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act


National Sex offender Act

The Pam Lychner Sexual Offender Tracking and Identification Act of 1996 (Lychner Act), requires the Attorney General to establish a national database at the FBI to track the whereabouts and movements of certain convicted sex offenders under Title 42 of the United States Code Section 14072. The National Crime Information Center (NCIC) enables the NSOR to retain the offender's current registered address and dates of registration, conviction, and residence.

Though national in scope, data provided by NationsCheck is compiled from multiple public record data sources. NationsCheck makes no claims to the completeness of its database or that data for all states or jurisdictions is included in its current product offerings.  NationsCheck takes reasonable measures to update these records as available, but as in all public records, we rely on the completeness and accuracy of each state's records.

Criminal Records Check Regional
  •  Northeast Regional Criminal Record Search with Sex Offender & Preditors 
  • Southern Regional Criminal Record Search with Sex Offender Records
  • Florida - Florida Department of Corrections, Florida Courts, and Florida Sex Offender Search
  • Georgia - Georgia Department of Corrections, Georgia Bureau of Investigation, and Georgia Sex Offender Search
  • South Carolina - South Carolina Department of Corrections and South Carolina Sex Offender Search
  • North Carolina - North Carolina Department of Corrections, North Carolina Case Records, and North Carolina Sex Offender Search
  • Virginia - Virginia Department of Corrections, Virginia Criminal Court Records, and Virginia Sex Offender Search
  • West Virginia - West Virginia Sex Offender Search
  • Delaware - Delaware Sex Offender Search
  • Maryland - Maryland Department of Corrections, Maryland Court Records, and Maryland Sex Offender Search
  • District of Columbia DC - District of Columbia DC Sex Offender Search
  • Alabama - Alabama Department of Corrections and Alabama Sex Offender Search
  • Mississippi - Mississippi Department of Corrections and Mississippi Sex Offender Search
  • Tennessee - Tennessee Department of Corrections, Tennessee Felony Records, Tennessee Judicial Records, and Tennessee Sex Offender Search
  • Kentucky - Kentucky Department of Corrections and Kentucky Sex Offender Search
  • Louisiana - Louisiana Department of Corrections and Louisiana Sex Offender Search
  • Arkansas - Arkansas Department of Corrections, Arkansas Criminal Records, and Arkansas Sex Offender Search
  • Oklahoma - Oklahoma Department of Corrections and Oklahoma Sex Offender Search
  • Texas - Texas Department of Corrections, Texas Criminal Records, Texas Misdemeanor Records, Texas Felony Records, Texas Department of Public Safety, Texas Department of Criminal Justice, Texas Criminal Courts, and Texas Sex Offender Search
  •  Midwest Regional Criminal Record Search with Sex Offender & Preditors
  •  Southern Regional Criminal Record Search with Sex Offender & Preditors
  •  Western Regional Criminal Record Search with Sex Offender & Preditors
Q: What is a steroid?
A: A steroid is a terpenoid lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings. All steroids are made in cells either from the sterol lanosterol or the sterol cycloartenol. Both sterols are derived from the cyclization of the triterpene squalene.

Q: What are Anabolic steroids?
A: Anabolic steroids are a class of steroid hormones related to the hormone testosterone. They increase protein synthesis within cells, which results in the buildup of cellular tissue (anabolism), especially in muscles. Anabolic steroids also have androgenic and virilizing properties, including the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics.

Q: What is sex steroid?
A: Sex steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors. Natural sex steroids are made by the gonads, by adrenal glands, or by conversion from other sex steroids in other tissues such as liver or fat.

Q: What are steroidal supplements?
A: In the United States , supplements such as tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) and androstenedione (street name "Andro") previously could be purchased legally without a prescription through many commercial sources, including health food stores. Steroidal supplements can be converted into testosterone or a similar compound in the body. Less is known about the side effects of steroidal supplements, but if large quantities of these compounds substantially increase testosterone levels in the body, then they also are likely to produce the same side effects as anabolic steroids themselves. The purchase of these supplements, with the notable exception of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), became illegal after the passage in 2004 of amendments to the Controlled Substances Act

Q: Why is the use of anabolic steroids banned by all major sporting bodies?
A: Anabolic steroids are used in medicine to stimulate bone growth and appetite, induce male puberty. They also produce increases in muscle mass and physical strength. So it is banned by all major sporting bodies like WTA, ITF, International Olympic Committee, FIFA, UEFA, the National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, the National Basketball Association, the European Athletic Association and the National Football League.

Q: What is pharmacology of anabolic steroids?
A: These steroids promote anabolism. They are androgenic or virilizing. The biochemical functions of androgens such as testosterone are numerous. Processes affected include pubertal growth, sebaceous gland oil production, and sexuality.

Q: What are the adverse effects of anabolic steroids?
A: Most of its side effects are dose dependent. The most common are blood pressure with pre-existing hypertension, harmful changes in cholesterol levels. It increases the risk of cardiovascular disease or coronary artery disease, enlargement and thickening of the left ventricle, cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, heart attacks, and sudden cardiac death.

Q: Why is the test for steroids required?
A: First, using steroids without a prescription can cause serious, adverse health effects. Second, using steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs can give athletes an unfair advantage over their competition, and is cheating. Third, testing for steroids can help deter their use among high school students. Finally, steroids are drugs that should be used to treat medical conditions.

Q: What are the methods used to detect steroids?
A: Various methods are being used by the sports authorities for detecting steroids like HPLC, GC, Immunoassay, Radio Immunoassay. Antibody-antigen based immunoassays are used as preliminary checks which give reasonably accurate results. Chromatographic methods may be employed for detailed analysis.

Q: What are Synthetic sex steroids?
A: There are also synthetic sex steroids. Synthetic androgens are often referred to as anabolic steroids. Synthetic estrogens and progestins are used in methods of hormonal contraception. Ethinylestradiol is a semi-synthetic estrogen.

Q: What is Hormonal therapy?
A: Hormonal therapy involves the manipulation of the endocrine system through exogenous administration of specific hormones, particularly steroid hormones, or drugs which inhibit the production or activity of such homones (hormone antagonists). Because steroid hormones are powerful drivers of gene expression in certain cancer cells and cause cell death.

Q: How is Hormonal therapy useful?
A: Hormonal therapy is used for several types of cancers derived from hormonally responsive tissues, including the breast, prostate, endometrium, and adrenal cortex. Hormonal therapy may also be used in the treatment of paraneoplastic syndromes or to ameliorate certain cancer- and chemotherapy-associated symptoms, such as anorexia.

Q: What are the medical uses of anabolic steroids ?
A: Anabolic steroids have been used by physicians for many purposes like Bone marrow stimulation, Growth stimulation, Stimulation of appetite and preservation and increase of muscle mass, Induction of male puberty, hormone replacement therapy.

Q: What are the functions of sex steroids?
A: Sex steroids play important roles in inducing the body changes known as primary sex characteristics and secondary sex characteristics. The development of both primary and secondary sexual characteristics is controlled by sex hormones after the initial fetal stage where the presence or absence of the Y-chromosome and/or the SRY gene determine development

Q: What are the types of sex steroids?
A: The two main classes of sex steroids are androgens and estrogen. Progestagen is a third class of sex steroids. These classes have been further divided in human derivatives like testosterone, androstenedione, anabolic steroids, estradiol, estrone, progestins and progesterone.

Q: What is the non-medical use of anabolic steroids?
A: The non-medical use of anabolic steroids is controversial because of their adverse effects and their use to gain potential advantage in competitive sports. Anabolic steroid users often are stereotyped as uneducated muscle heads by popular media and culture. Anabolic steroids for non medical purposes had a higher employment rate and a higher household income than the general population.

Q: What is a steroid cycle?
A: A steroid cycle is a term commonly used to describe a period in time where an individual intakes anabolic steroids. The longer the body's endogenous supply of testosterone is suppressed, the harder it will be for their hypothalamus/pituitary/testicular axis (HPTA) to recover. More serious health risks are associated with longer cycles.

Q: How to minimize side effects of anabolic steroids?
A: Various methods of minimizing the adverse effects of anabolic steroids have been implemented. Users may increase their cardiovascular exercise level to help to counter the effects of changes in the left ventricle, Some androgens are converted by the body into estrogen, a process, known as aromatisation, which has potential adverse effects. Consequently, during a steroid cycle, users may also take drugs to prevent aromatisation.

Q: What is a hormone?
A: A hormone is a chemical messenger that carries a signal from one cell (or group of cells) to another via the blood. All multi-cellular organisms produce hormones. There are different types of hormones which govern different developmental and functional states.

Q: What is Endocrine hormone?
A: Endocrine hormone molecules are secreted (released) directly into the bloodstream, while exocrine hormones are secreted directly into a duct, and from the duct they either flow into the bloodstream or they flow from cell to cell by diffusion in a process known as paracrine signaling.

Q: What is the Hierarchical nature of hormonal control?
A: The secretion of hormones from successive levels of endocrine cells is stimulated by chemical signals originating from cells higher up the hierarchical system. The master coordinator of hormonal activity in mammals is the hypothalamus, which acts on input that it receives from the central nervous system. Other hormone secretion occurs in response to local conditions, such as the rate of secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid cells in response to fluctuations of ionized calcium levels in extra-cellular fluid.

Q: What is the Pharmacology of hormones?
A: A pharmacologic dose of a hormone is a medical usage referring to an amount of a hormone far greater than naturally occurs in a healthy body. The effects of pharmacologic doses of hormones may be different from responses to naturally-occurring amounts and may be therapeutically useful. Local preparations for use in otolaryngology often contain pharmacologic equivalents of adrenaline.

Q: What is the Physiology of hormones?
A: The rate of hormone biosynthesis and secretion is often regulated by a homeostatic negative feedback control mechanism. Such a mechanism depends on factors which influence the metabolism and excretion of hormones. One special group of hormones is the tropic hormones that stimulate the hormone production of other endocrine glands. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) causes growth and increased activity of another endocrine gland, the thyroid, which increases output of thyroid hormones.

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